Structural editing (sometimes called substantive editing) focuses on the architecture of a text. To make a research article or book as persuasive and authoritative as possible, this level of editing involves strengthening the logic of the argument, improving the presentation of evidence, sharpening the focus, and refining the organization of the text. This work entails more intervention by the editor than stylistic or copy editing and therefore involves more interaction with the author to discuss alternatives. Quality in structural editing requires a solid understanding of the author’s project and the disciplinary community of discourse it addresses. Editors who agree to take on a particular structural editing project are usually subject matter experts (SMEs) in the field or have experience in the genre of text, such as research proposals.